Ingrid B. Quinn

NMLS ID #211652 Arizona, Loan Consultant


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Self Employed Types of Earnings

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I have recently run into a client’s situation that I thought bared discussion. Owners of a C Corp left profits in the corporation and did not distribute to themselves personally and it was a challenge qualifying them for a mortgage. There are different types of self-employed entities that someone may set up and in the mortgage lender’s eyes they are analyzed differently though a single theme is present throughout. If you don’t report the income to the IRS, we cannot use it.

Any individual who has a 25% or greater ownership interest in a business is considered to be self-employed. Lenders will require personal and business tax returns (if ownership is greater than 25%) to qualify a borrower in any of these types of entities.
Sole Proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business that is individually owned and managed. The individual owner has unlimited personal liability for all debts of the business.

The income, expenses, and taxable profits of a sole proprietorship are reported on the owner’s IRS Form 1040, Schedule C, and are taxed at the tax rates that apply to individuals.

Partnerships
A partnership is an arrangement between two or more individuals who have pooled their assets and skills to form a business and who will share profits and losses according to predetermined proportions that are set out in the partnership agreement. A partnership may be either a general partnership or a limited partnership:

• General Partnership – Under a general partnership, each partner has responsibility for running the business, is personally liable for the debts of the entire business, and is responsible for the actions of every other partner (unless otherwise specified in the partnership agreement).

• Limited Partnership – Under a limited partnership, a limited partner has limited liability based on the amount he or she invested in the partnership, does not typically participate in the management and operation of the business, and has limited decision-making ability. Because limited partnerships often are formed as tax shelters, it is more likely that IRS Form 1065, Schedule K-1, will reflect a loss instead of income.
The partnership must report its profit or loss on IRS Form 1065 and each partner’s share of the profit or loss on IRS Form 1065, Schedule K-1; however, the partnership pays no tax on the partnership income.

Limited Liability Companies
A limited liability company (LLC) is a hybrid business structure that is designed to offer its member-owners the tax efficiencies of a partnership and the limited liability advantages of a corporation. The member-owners of the LLC (or their assigned managers) can sign contracts, sell assets, and make other important business decisions. The LLC operating agreement may set out specific divisions of power among the member-owners (or managers). Although the member-owners generally have limited liability, there may be some instances in which they are required to personally guarantee some of the loans that the LLC obtains. Profits from the operation of the LLC may be distributed beyond the pool of member-owners, such as by offering profit distributions to managers.

The LLC must report its profit or loss on IRS Form 1065 and each member-owner’s share of the profit or loss on IRS Form 1065, Schedule K-1; however, the LLC pays no tax on its income. Each member-owner uses the information from Schedule K-1 to report his or her share of the LLC’s net profit or loss (and special deductions and credits) on his or her individual IRS Form 1040, whether or not the member-owner receives a cash distribution from the LLC. Individual member-owners pay taxes on their proportionate share of the LLC’s net income at their individual tax rates.

S Corporations
An S corporation is a legal entity that has a limited number of stockholders and elects not to be taxed as a regular corporation. Business gains and losses are passed on to the stockholders. An S corporation has many of the characteristics of a partnership. Stockholders are taxed at their individual tax rates for their proportionate share of ordinary income, capital gains, and other taxable items.
The ordinary income for an S corporation is reported on IRS Form 1120S, with each shareholder’s share of the income reported on IRS Form 1120S, Schedule K-1.

Because this income from the distribution of corporate earnings may or may not be distributed to the individual shareholders, the lender should determine if the borrower received a cash distribution from the S corporation.
Corporations

A corporation is a state-chartered legal entity that exists separately and distinctly from its owners (who are called stockholders or shareholders).
The distribution of profits earned by the business is determined by the owners of the corporation. However, the profits usually are filtered down to the owners in the form of dividends. Since a stockholder is not personally liable for the debts of the corporation, losses are limited to his or her individual investment in the corporation’s stock.

Corporations must report income and losses on IRS Form 1120 and pay taxes on the net income. The corporation distributes profits to its shareholders in the form of dividends, which it reports on IRS Form 1099-DIV. The shareholders must then report the dividends as income on their individual IRS Form 1040.
For questions or comments, please contact me at Ingrid.quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or visit me at http://www.cobaltmortgage.com/ingridquinn.


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PMI vs MIP. What are the differences?

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Many homeowners pay it and many home buyers try to avoid it…mortgage insurance. You may be wondering, “What is mortgage insurance and why do I have to pay for it?” Conventional mortgages have private mortgage insurance (PMI) and FHA loans have what is termed mortgage insurance premium (MIP). Here’s more information on both and how they may affect your payments when you purchase a home or closing on a refinance.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)As part of the loan qualifications set out by Fannie Mae and most investors, a borrower is required to pay PMI when at least 20 percent of a home’s purchase price is not provided as a down payment. Private mortgage insurance is paid by the borrower, but it benefits the lender. It protects the lender against loss if a borrower defaults on a loan.
PMI rates vary depending on down payment and FICO scores. You may find the annual premiums (divided by 12 to make monthly payments) on a minimum down payment conventional loan to run from 1.20% to .59% a year. Conventional loans also have a variety of ways to pay for the mortgage insurance. It can be paid in one lump sum, paid monthly only, or split in lump sum and monthly in one transaction.
Mortgage insurance will also drop off automatically at a certain point in the loan life. You may have to get a mortgage that requires paying PMI, but it’s also possible to obtain more than one loan (Home equity loan/2nd mortgage) and avoid paying PMI. When obtaining a mortgage, it’s important that you find a loan that fits your specific situation and goals.

Mortgage Insurance Premium (MIP)FHA guidelines allow for a small amount of cash down payment to close a loan. As a result, all borrowers must pay a MIP to insure the lender against loss if the homeowner defaults on the mortgage. While there are ways to avoid PMI with conventional loans, there is no way to avoid MIP on FHA loans because that is how the program is set up.
The MIP has increased in the last 3 years, on 4 occasions to a current level for 30 year mortgages of 1.75% in an upfront premium financed on top of the loan and an annual premium of 1.35% a year with the minimum required down payment. The annual premiums can vary depending on down payment and the term of the loan (30 year vs 15 year loans). MIP has also undergone a significant change in that the mortgage insurance premium will stay on for the life of the loan no matter how much equity the owner has in the property.

It is important to explore the differences between Conventional and FHA loans because the mortgage insurance has a significant impact on your monthly payments. It is important to find a knowledgeable loan officer that can explain your options to you.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact me at Ingrid.quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or visit me at http://www.scottsdalemortgageexpert.com or http://www.cobaltmortgage.com/ingridquinn


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What Kind of Lender Are You Using?

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When looking to buy a home, one of the most important things to think about is what type of lender you are going to be working with. You may be surprised by how many different options there are.
Banks, large and small: Due to their size, banks have a tendency to be a bit slower. In general, I have seen the banks take weeks to go through a process that takes other lenders days. There may be the chance that you are working with a Private Banking Associate who may get your file through a bit faster. On the negative side, trying to get a loan through a bank’s branch network, 1-800# call center or a low to middle producing loan officer can be painful.
There can also be a challenge with having the appraisal done through a bank’s system. Due to changes enacted by the CFPB, all lenders must use a 3rd party system of ordering appraisals. Banks use their own Appraisal Management Company (AMC). I equate ordering an appraisal to pulling a number out of a Bingo basket. It is random and the pool of appraisers is quite large. Obtaining a mortgage through a bank tends to be a conveyer belt process, possibly in another state or region. This can cause the loan process to take longer as well as be a bit more complex.

Credit Unions: Credit unions can go either way. From life experience a credit union’s functionality and speed are greatly affected by the loyalty you show. Credit unions also draw from their own AMC, and tend to be similar to a big bank. When it comes down to it Credit Unions are a 50/50 shot on whether you are going to have a great experience or a bad one.

Mortgage Brokers: Mortgage brokerage firms seem to be mostly about the individual broker. This can be a good thing when it comes time to shop rates for the client. If you are thinking of working with a Mortgage Broker, you will want to meet them in person and get to know their work ethic to see what to expect during your transaction. There are some downsides such as, appraisal ordering is subject to the AMC of the institution the broker chooses to go to. Some of these lenders broker to big banks, small banks, wholesale entities, insurance companies, credit unions, private banks and more. Guaranteed before your first payment is due the loan, will have been transferred and may do so a number of times throughout the life of the loan. The broker has very little negotiation power during the underwriting process as far as any hiccups on the file.

Mortgage Bankers: A good mortgage banking firm is a worthwhile contact right now. A mortgage banker is usually set up to underwrite and close loans in-house, which means faster turn times, more control and the underwriting staff, closers, funders personally know the people who are handling your loan . Some mortgage bankers even have their own AMC, populated by a smaller pool of self selected appraisers they know well, which can make for the best results for a tight appraisal situation you may be worried about. Most Mortgage Bankers also have constant contact with your loan and have the ability to check status and in turn give you immediate feedback and updates throughout the process. This keeps the control with your Mortgage Banker and allows you to have more input into the process. They are also very likely to service the loan after it closes, so you have a loan life partner in your loan officer.

Online lenders: When looking at online lenders the best way to think of it is, would you want to place the largest purchase in your life in the hands of a nameless, faceless entity? Online lenders are big, with no knowledge of the local market and are subject to large AMC’s. From my experience, they tend to be slow and cause frustration. If a client wants to take a leap of faith and purchase or refinance with an online lender, I am honestly going to try and talk them out of it. I personally would not risk going to an online lender.


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Buying Without Selling

4412037-handling-multiple-homesMany homeowners would like to buy a new home and not have to manage the timing of a simultaneous close or would like to do some work on the new home without having to live there. The buyers are not sure they would even be able meet lender’s qualification guidelines carrying both properties.

With a strengthening housing market and housing inventory low, why should a seller accept an offer from a buyer that has a house to sell? Who knows if the buyers are realistic and price their current home to sell, or will do all the right things to market and sell it quickly? Sellers wait to get a cash or non-contingent offer, because they know one will come along soon enough.

There are rules to qualifying for a new home without selling your current home. You must be able to make the required down payment from savings or secured borrowing. The easiest way to qualify is to you have the income to carry both homes without the benefit of rental income to offset the payment of the current home. If the current home is owned free & clear, the lender will count the tax, insurance and HOA fees as monthly liabilities. We must receive a Desktop underwriting approval for the income to debt obligation ratios. Then we are good to go. There are asset reserve requirements.

For a Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac conforming loan up to $417,000 or $625,500 in high cost areas of the country, and a buyer is converting their current home to an investment or 2nd home the reserve requirements for assets after close are if there is 30% equity in the converted residence, then 2 months of the new home payment and 2 months of the converted home payments are required. If there is not 30% equity, then 6 months payments for each is required to be in reserves. There are additional reserve requirements if the homebuyer will own more than 2 properties.
Please feel free to contact me for additional information at ingrid.quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or visit me at scottsdalemortgageexpert.com or cobaltmortgage.com/ingridquinn


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How Much Do You Really Make?

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Recently, I have had clients who are hourly wage earners and new to their current job. I decided that maybe touching on the subject of regular wage earning income documentation might be appropriate to discuss. Underwriting guidelines require a two year job history. If you have a set salary then we simply divide that number by 12 to determine your monthly income. If you get paid an hourly wage, we ask for verification of hours worked. This is so that we may determine your monthly income based on current pay and average hours worked.
If the hours you work in a week can be verified via pay stubs and those hours are constant week after week, then we will take your current hourly pay and your set number of hours to determine your monthly income. On the other hand, if your hours fluctuate from week to week, then we will need to collect information from your employer to determine your average hours worked in a week. From there we can once again determine and verify your average monthly income for the past two years.
If there have been job changes during the past two years, we will verify a few things, such as, if you are making a lateral move or if you are moving to improve your position. It is important for you to stay in the same/similar line of work or that you at least have experience/education in that job line and the experience/education must be documented. Some people have obtained the training/education for a specific job, but work a job that doesn’t correlate until a position is open. If you change employers we are required to show 30 days of income on your new pay stubs.
There are different stipulations for commission, bonus and overtime income. These types of income will be averaged over the past two year because it is income that is based on performance. This will be verified with your current employer that it is likely to continue.
Above all else you should speak to your lender and be forthcoming with them. They will ask you for all of this documentation. We want to get you the best loan possible. If you have any questions or comments please feel to email me at Ingrid.quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or visit me at http://www.Scottsdalemortgageexpert.com or http://www.cobaltmortgage.com/ingridquinn.


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Pre-Qualification Vs. Pre-Approval

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There seems to be a misunderstanding of the difference between a pre-qualification letter and a pre –approval letter. Both letters are given to a home buyer by a lender and it is usually suggested that a buyer gets this letter prior to shopping for their home. These allow clients to know exactly what their price range is and what they realistically can be approved for.

When in Arizona, both of these letters are documented with the same form, a PQF/ Pre-Qualification Form.

A pre-qualification letter can be created by simply having a conversation over the phone with a lender and having a credit check run. All this letter states is that from the information you have given the lender, you are qualified for up to a specific amount. If you are getting a pre-qualification letter, please take the time to be specific and honest with your lender. This will allow you to get the most accurate results possible.

On the other hand, there is also the option of getting a Pre-Approval letter. This letter is completed with the same form as a pre-qualification letter only with additional comments/notes made on it. This means that the file has been sent through a desktop underwriting (DU/LP) engine and documentation has been collected & reviewed by processing as well as an underwriter. This is usually marked with a TBD “to be determined” address. This is an approved loan simply requiring an appraisal, contract & title work.

Realtors appreciate when clients take the time to go through this process because it allows them to properly determine which homes to show and what is going to be best for that specific client. Yes, a pre-approval does take a little more effort and time, but in the end it can really give you the edge when looking to buy! For questions or comments please feel free to email me at Ingrid.Quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or visit me at scottsdalemortgageexpert.com .


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Rumor: Loans Are Hard to Get

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I receive phone calls on a daily basis from people looking for a mortgage. They want to get prequalified to purchase a home and most want to have the rumor “It’s hard to get a loan nowadays” dispelled. There are a lot of mortgage options available:

1. Conventional conforming loans- up to 97% loan to values to $417,000 or higher depending on area of the country loan is placed
2. FHA loans- 96.5% loan to values
3. VA loans- 100% loan to values for veterans & military personnel
4. Jumbo loans- loan amounts over conventional conforming loan limits
5. UDSA- 100% loan to value rural area loans
6. Private/hard money loans
7. Home Equity loans

So where is this bad information coming from? Media, banks, mom & dad, professionals in your life? Getting a loan is not that hard. You need decent credit (not super excellent), a job, and cash for a down payment and closing costs potentially, depending on the type of financing you are eligible for.

Many times the clients I talk to are referred from agents that were supposed to take the client out to look at a rental. If they can afford an $800-$3500 rent payment for example, they may be able to buy a home.

It is important for the consumer to get re-educated on the market today when they are looking to make any kind of move, renting or purchasing, so they know their options and have a plan in place. Many people are surprised when I tell them you can qualify to purchase now. With the market improving and interest rates at historic lows still, now is a great time to buy a home! If you have any questions or comments, I would love to hear from you. I can be reached at Ingrid.quinn@cobaltmortgage.com or http://www.scottsdalemortgageexpert.com or http://www.cobaltmortgage.com/ingridquinn.